© 2021 International Society of NephrologyProvision of adequate kidney care for patients with chronic kidney disease or kidney failure (KF) is costly and requires extensive resources. There is an inequality in the global distribution of wealth and resources needed to provide this care. In this second iteration of the International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas, we present data for countries in Eastern and Central Europe. In the region, the median prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 13.15% and treated KF was 764 per million population, respectively, slightly higher than the global median of 759 per million population. In most countries in the region, over 90% of dialysis patients were on hemodialysis and patients with a functioning graft represented less than one-third of total patients with treated KF. The median annual costs for maintenance hemodialysis were close to the global median, and public funding provided nearly universal coverage of the costs of kidney replacement therapy. Nephrologists were primarily responsible for KF care. All countries had the capacity to provide long-term hemodialysis, and 95% had the capacity to provide peritoneal dialysis. Home hemodialysis was generally not available. Kidney transplantation and conservative care were available across most of the region. Almost all countries had official dialysis and transplantation registries. Eastern and Central Europe is a region with a high burden of chronic kidney disease and variable capacity to deal with it. Insufficient funding and workforce shortages coupled with increasing comorbidities among aging patients and underutilization of cost-effective dialysis therapies such as peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation may compromise the quality of care for patients with KF. Some workforce shortages could be addressed by improving the organization of nephrological care in some countries of the region.