We compared Turkish patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX) and controls with respect to serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, as well as the single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the promoter regions of their related genes. This study included 111 consecutive patients angiographically diagnosed with CSX and 111 healthy controls with similar demographic characteristics. Serum interleukin (IL) 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), and IL-10 levels were measured, and the genotypes of the patients and controls were determined using standard methods. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the CSX group than in the control group (P < .01, respectively). Serum TNF- level was lower in the CSX group than in the control group (P < .001). On the other hand, participants with CSX and healthy controls were not significantly different with respect to the genotype distributions of IL-6, TNF-, and IL-10 genes. As a result of our study, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of CSX. In contrast, the studied gene polymorphisms did not influence CSX pathogenesis.