The purpose of this study was to assess the pre- and postoperative position and dimensions of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) following sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) and identify any association with postoperative neurosensory deficit (NSD) at 1 year. This retrospective cohort study enrolled consecutive patients who had SSO performed to correct skeletal malocclusion. The pre- and postoperative cone beam computed tomography data were superimposed to visualize differences in IAC position and dimensions. Subjective and objective neurosensory tests were used to determine NSD in the inferior alveolar nerve distribution. A total of 20 subjects were included. The preoperative distance from the lateral cortex of the IAC to the inner aspect of the lateral cortex of the mandible was significantly greater in sides with NSD when compared to sides without NSD (P= 0.01). A significantly greater reduction in the postoperative distance measurement was seen in sides with NSD when compared to sides without NSD (P = 0.01). The magnitude of mandibular movement was significantly increased in sides with NSD (P = 0.02). The preoperative location of the IAC, as well as certain changes in the mediolateral and vertical positions as a result of SSO, are risk factors for postoperative NSD.