Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of bioabsorbable calcified triglyceride bone cement (CTBC) on bone formation when used as an adjunct to guided bone regeneration (GBR) and compare it with the results obtained with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB). Material and Methods: Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into three equal-sized groups. Following incisions along with the inferior border of the mandible, full thickness flaps were elevated via an extraoral approach. Custom-made rigid, hemispherical teflon capsules were packed with CTBC, or DBB, or were left empty and placed facing the lateral surface of the mandibular ramus. At the postoperative 4th months, all rats were sacrificed and tissue samples were processed for decalcified histological evaluation of the newly formed bone, residual graft particles, and soft connective tissue within the space created by the capsules. Results: It was observed that the amount of mineralized bone formation in the capsules filled with CTBC and DBB was similar, and most of the capsules were filled with biomaterial particles embedded in the connective tissue. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of newly formed bone, graft particles or connective tissue (p>0.05). On the other hand, it was determined that a greater amount of new mineralized bone was formed in the control group compared to the CTBC or DBB groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Grafting with CTBC or DBB did not make any difference when used as an adjunct to GBR.