This study was the first fatty acid analysis and biological activity report on an endemic Achillea species, Achillea cappadocica Hausskn. et Bornm. The major compounds in the fatty acid were identified as oleic (34.7%), palmitic (23.1%), and linoleic acids (20.6%). The methanol and water extracts indicated higher ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than that of alpha-tocopherol and BHT at 100 mu g/mL. The acetone extract showed 70.62% inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase at 200 mu g/mL. The acetone and methanol extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity.