JOURNAL OF CHEMOTHERAPY, vol.28, no.2, pp.95-103, 2016 (SCI-Expanded)
In vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of antimicrobial cationic peptides (AMPs) melittin and colistin both alone and in combination with antibiotics were evaluated against clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIG) index were determined by the microbroth dilution and chequerboard techniques, respectively. The time-kill curve (TKC) method was used for determining the bactericidal activities of AMPs alone and in combination. Measurements of anti-biofilm activities were performed spectrophotometrically for both inhibition of attachment and 24-hour biofilm formation at MIC or subMIC. According to MIC, values, the most active agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia colt and Klebsiella pneumoniae were colistin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin, respectively. In combination studies, synergistic effects were mostly seen with colistin imipenem against E. coif and K. pneumoniae (50 and 54%, respectively), colistin ciprofloxacin against P. aeruginosa (77%). In TKC studies, synergism was observed with almost all expected combinations, even more frequently than chequerboard method. All of the antimicrobial agents were able to inhibit attachment and 24-hour biofilm formation between 0-57% at 1/10 x MIC and 7-73% at 1 x or 1/10 x MIC, respectively. AMPs seem to be a good candidate for antimicrobial chemotherapy with their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities as a single agent or in combination with antibiotics.