Orchis anatolica Boiss. is one of the Mediterranean species, which has wide distribution in Turkey. In this study, plant and soil samples of O. anatolica were taken from 26 natural populations in Turkey. There were one hundred ninety locality records in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, but we recorded two hundred sixteen localities thus adding twenty six new localities to the list. Twenty morphological parameters of O. anatolica were evaluated. The correlation coefficients between generative characters and vegetative characters were lower than the character groups of correlation coefficients between themselves. It is found from sea level upto 1700 m. Most common habitats of O. anatolica are macchie, forest lands and stony soils. The soils are loamy, clayey- loam and sandy-clayey- loam and rich in organic matter. The pH of the soils varies from 5.87 to 7.92. Although O. anatolica has wide distribution in Turkey, different types of land uses are posing a threat for it and restricting its distributional area. Lacking the legal regulations about conservation of the O. anatolica populations is one of the most striking requirement.